Un gobierno mundial: la idea de Stephen Hawking para que el avance tecnológico no acabe destruyendo la especie humana

Image: REUTERS/Lucas Jackson
Image: REUTERS/Lucas Jackson

Con los últimos avances tecnológicos como la inteligencia artificial, la preocupación y las divagaciones sobre el futuro que nos espera son cada vez más frecuentes, y en esto además hay figuras relativamente habituales dentro de la comunidad científica e investigadora. No, esta vez no hablaremos de algo que ha dicho Elon Musk, pero quien ha esbozado otra nueva idea sobre el hipotético futuro es Stephen Hawking, que plantea un gobierno mundial para evitar las amenazas del avance tecnológico.

Ésta fue una de las ideas que dejaba en una entrevista en The Times en la que hablaba del futuro y en la que a grandes rasgos se mostraba optimista, lo cual no tendría por qué llamar la atención. Pero en este particular caso los precedentes del científico no son precisamente de ideas optimistas sobre ese futuro en el que la presencia de robots autónomos e inteligencia artificial (AI) plantean cambios en varios aspectos del sistema.

Un gobierno para unirlos a todos, humanos y robots

Hace poco más de un mes estos dos mismos nombres que mencionamos en la introducción formaban parte de una declaración de principios de actuación de cara al desarrollo de AI, dado que son miembros de Future of Life, la organización que (en parte) los compuso. Aunque ya se hablaba de responsabilidad, ética y otras cuestiones de la humanidad en general, no se planteó ninguna indicación estrictamente política.

Para Stepehn Hawking «una forma de gobierno mundial» sería lo ideal para atajar cuestiones como el control de los peligros del avance tecnológico antes de que éstos se intensifiquen

Ha sido en esta entrevista cuando Hawking ha añadido la idea de que «una forma de gobierno mundial» sería lo ideal para atajar cuestiones como el control de los peligros del avance tecnológico antes de que éstos se intensifiquen, relacionándolo con la idea de que la agresión ha sido una herramienta de supervivencia desde los inicios de la civilización (según declaraba). Peligros, enumera, como guerras nucleares o biológicas o la carrera armamentística que sí se mencionaba en esa declaración de principios y de los que habló también hace unos dos años.

Eso sí. El científico teme los peligros de la inteligencia artificial sin olvidar los de la natural, dado que no ahonda en esa idea de gobierno mundial pero sí matiza que podría convertirse en una tiranía. Aunque pese a ello se considera optimista y cree que los seres humanos seremos capaces de controlar y atajar los retos que vaya planteando este futuro.

Viendo el futuro con más ciencia que ficción

En realidad la idea es bastante optimista si lo comparamos con otros pensamientos que el científico ha manifestado anteriormente. Hace dos años Hawking hablaba de que la amenaza para la especie humana por parte de los hipotéticos sistemas avanzados de AI del futuro, que «tomarían control de sí mismos y se rediseñarían a sí mismos a un ritmo siempre creciente. Los humanos, que están limitados por la evolución biológica, no podrían competir, y serían superados».

Aunque con el fin de aportar algo de realismo y fundamento científico en la Universidad de Stanford iniciaron un proyecto basado en la publicación de una serie de trabajos que irán aportando actualidad y una previsión lo más realista posible del avance de la IA. En su primera entrega de hecho ya hacían referencia a un miedo que podía ser exagerado y que había una mala interpretación de la gente (según Peter Stone, científico del proyecto), sin encontrar nada por lo que debiésemos temer ni ahora ni en un futuro próximo.

En la actualidad cuesta un poco imaginar un gobierno mundial capaz de llegar a acuerdos (ya no sólo en materia de AI), cuesta bastante menos imaginar industrias enteras controladas por robots gracias a gente como Musk, que ya ve sus futuras fábricas sin presencia humana. El empresario no se ha planteado esta idea de gobierno mundial (no al menos públicamente), pero de cara a este futuro automatizado sí habló de la necesidad de un salario mínimo universal.

Escrito por
Anna Martí
Con la colaboración de Xataka.

Las opiniones expresadas en este artículo son las del autor y no del Foro Económico Mundial.

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